In July 1951, he resigned from MI6, preempting his all-but-inevitable dismissal.[53]. [3], On the evening of 23 January 1963, Philby vanished from Beirut, failing to meet his wife for a dinner party at the home of Glencairn Balfour Paul, First Secretary at the British Embassy. Philby had to help discover the identity of "Homer", but also wished to protect Maclean. SON OF MASTER SPY. Was confronted with the mounting evidence by friend Nicholas Elliott, a … He defected to the USSR in 1963, where he died in 1988 at the age of 76. This role allowed him to conduct sabotage and instruct agents on how to properly conduct sabotage. Under a cloud of suspicion raised by his highly visible and intimate association with Burgess, Philby returned to London. For a large sum of money, Volkov offered the names of three Soviet agents inside Britain, two of whom worked in the Foreign Office and a third who worked in counter-espionage in London. [21][22], Alexander Orlov (born Lev Feldbin; code-name Swede), Philby's controller in Madrid, who had once met him in Perpignan, France, with the bulge of an automatic rifle clearly showing through his raincoat, also defected. 2012. The matchmaker was his … Following his debriefing in the US, Golitsyn was sent to SIS for further questioning. In February 1934, Philby married Litzi Friedmann, an Austrian Jewish communist whom he had met in Vienna. As he states in his autobiography, he "became something of a fanatic" and in 1908 "the first Socialist to join the Indian Civil Service". [10][page needed]. [73] Philby was under virtual house arrest, guarded, with all visitors screened by the KGB. [30], Philby's role as an instructor of sabotage agents again brought him to the attention of the Soviet Joint State Political Directorate (OGPU). He used a simpler system for MI6 delivering post at Hendaye, France, for the British Embassy in Paris. In December 1937, during the Battle of Teruel, a Republican shell hit just in front of the car in which Philby was travelling with the correspondents Edward J. Neil of the Associated Press, Bradish Johnson of Newsweek, and Ernest Sheepshanks[20] of Reuters. Aileen Philby had suffered since childhood from psychological problems which caused her to inflict injuries upon herself. [60], In 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn, a major in the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, defected to the United States from his diplomatic post in Helsinki. [10][page needed], His Soviet controller at the time, Theodore Maly, reported in April 1937 to the NKVD that he had personally briefed Philby on the need "to discover the system of guarding Franco and his entourage". He took a job at a monthly magazine, the World Review of Reviews, for which he wrote a large number of articles and letters (sometimes under a variety of pseudonyms) and occasionally served as "acting editor. [44], In January 1950, on evidence provided by the Venona intercepts, Soviet atomic spy Klaus Fuchs was arrested. [10][page needed], By September 1941, Philby began working for Section Five of MI6, a section responsible for offensive counter-intelligence. In 1968 Philby published his memoirs, My Silent War. The NKVD complained to Cecil Barclay, the SIS representative in Moscow, that information had been withheld. They remained friends for many years following their separation and divorced only in 1946, just following the end of World War II. Nonetheless, the information was publicized in 1967 when Philby granted an interview to Murray Sayle of The Times in Moscow. For the Soviets, Philby was an invaluable asset, ensuring the correct use of idiomatic and diplomatic English phrases in their disinformation efforts.[82]. After I had been wounded and decorated by Franco himself, I became known as 'the English-decorated-by-Franco' and all sorts of doors opened to me. Litzi lived in Paris before returning to London for the duration of the war; she ultimately settled in East Germany. Kim Philby’s closest friend, Nicholas Elliott, was always struck by the “loyalty and affection” he inspired in women. [58] Another meeting was scheduled to take place in the last week of January. Carr described himself as a civil servant but was actually a spy working for MI6 with Kim Philby and Graham Greene. When visiting Paris after the war, he was shocked to discover that the address that he used for Mlle Dupont was that of the Soviet Embassy. He served as both an […] [33] In early 1944, as it became clear that the Soviet Union was likely to once more prove a significant adversary to Britain, SIS re-activated Section Nine, which dealt with anti-communist efforts. Philby had repeated his claim that there were no such agents. [66] The Dolmatova, a Soviet freighter bound for Odessa, had left Beirut that morning so abruptly that cargo was left scattered over the docks;[58] Philby claimed that he left Beirut on board this ship. [citation needed], The SIS planned to interrogate Maclean on 28 May 1951. Philby told the British, after a direct question to Franco, that German troops would never be permitted to cross Spain to attack Gibraltar. While working in Section Five, Philby had become acquainted with James Jesus Angleton, a young American counter-intelligence officer working in liaison with SIS in London. Rufina Pukhova, his Russian-Polish wife, said Philby struggled to control his drinking by downing only two glasses of cognac a night and then handing her the bottle to hide. [31] At this time, the German Abwehr was active in Spain, particularly around the British naval base of Gibraltar, which its agents hoped to watch with many cameras and radars to track Allied supply ships in the Western Mediterranean. Kim Philby divorced Litzi Friedmannon 17th September 1946. Kim Philby and journalist Phillip Knightly in Moscow in January 1988 This gallery is from Storyville — The Spy Who Went into the Cold: Kim Philby, Soviet Super Spy "[55] Following this, Philby gave a press conference in which – calmly, confidently, and without the stammer he had struggled with since childhood – he reiterated his innocence, declaring, "I have never been a communist. His successor, Boris Bazarov, suffered the same fate two years later during the purges. Registered in England No. Colonel David Smiley, an aristocratic Guards officer who had helped Enver Hoxha and his Communist guerillas to liberate Albania, now prepared to remove Hoxha. She noted that they produced an extraordinary wealth of information on German war plans but next to nothing on the repeated question of British penetration of Soviet intelligence in either London or Moscow. Turkish intelligence took them to a border crossing into Georgia but soon afterwards shots were heard. Philby worked at first as a freelance journalist; from May 1937, he served as a first-hand correspondent for The Times, reporting from the headquarters of the pro-Franco forces. I think that he was of Czech origin; about 5 ft 7in, stout, with blue eyes and light curly hair. Many other books and films have been based on his life: John le Carré's novel (also a BBC television mini-series) Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy (1974) focuses on the hunt for a Soviet agent patterned after Philby. JOHN DAVID PHILBY. [52][57] There, his journalism served as cover for renewed work for MI6. Shortly afterward, Philby was moved to the job as chief SIS representative in Washington, D.C., with his family. Kim Philby died in Moscow in May 1988. His arrest led to others: Harry Gold, a courier with whom Fuchs had worked, David Greenglass, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. [16], In London, Philby began a career as a journalist. The "affair of the missing diplomats," as it was referred to before Burgess and Maclean surfaced in Moscow,[52] attracted a great deal of public attention, and Burgess's disappearance, which identified him as complicit in Maclean's espionage, deeply compromised Philby's position. As spies queue up to write memoirs, the life of a Cold War master- spy remains intriguing. On 7 November 1955, Philby was officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan, who told the House of Commons, "I have no reason to conclude that Mr. Philby has at any time betrayed the interests of his country, or to identify him with the so-called 'Third Man', if indeed there was one. [10][page needed], A more serious incident occurred in August 1945, when Konstantin Volkov, an NKVD agent and vice-consul in Istanbul, requested political asylum in Britain for himself and his wife. Following Eleanor's divorce, the couple married[58] in January 1959. He later wrote "she had got a tantalising scrap of information about a young English journalist whom the Soviet intelligence had sent to Spain during the Civil War. On September 3 1939, Soviet spy Kim Philby met his future wife. At this point, however, Philby and Litzi separated. Philby engaged in a concerted effort to make contact with Germans such as Joachim von Ribbentrop, at that time the German ambassador in London. We have noticed that there is an issue with your subscription billing details. He said, 'Why do old people live so badly here? She lived separately from Philby, settling with their children in Crowborough while he lived first in London and later in Beirut. During the early years of the Cold War, Philby handed intelligence to the USSR. They travelled together in Spain through August 1939. He was recruited by Soviet intelligence in 1934. He also delivered clothes and money to refugees from the Nazis. Larger numbers were landed by sea and air under Operation Valuable, which continued until 1951, increasingly under the influence of the newly formed CIA. In late summer 1943, the SIS provided the GRU an official report on the activities of German agents in Bulgaria and Romania, soon to be invaded by the Soviet Union. Philby found that the award proved helpful in obtaining access to fascist circles: "Before then," he later wrote, "there had been a lot of criticism of British journalists from Franco officers who seemed to think that the British in general must be a lot of Communists because so many were fighting with the International Brigades. These lapses by Philby aroused intense suspicion in Moscow. Harry St John Bridger Philby, CIE, also known as Jack Philby or Sheikh Abdullah, was a British Arabist, adviser, explorer, writer, and Colonial Office intelligence officer. [10][page needed] On a short trip back from Spain, Philby tried to recruit Flora Solomon as a Soviet agent; she was the daughter of a Russian banker and gold dealer, a relative of the Rothschilds, and wife of a London stockbroker. [70] When the news broke, MI6 came under criticism for failing to anticipate and block Philby's defection, though Elliott was to claim he could not have prevented Philby's flight. Philby planned to infiltrate five or six groups of émigrés into Soviet Armenia or Soviet Georgia. [4], Nicknamed "Kim" after the boy-spy in Rudyard Kipling's novel Kim,[3] Philby attended Aldro preparatory school, an all-boys school located in Shackleford near Godalming in Surrey, United Kingdom. During the Phoney War from September 1939 until the Dunkirk evacuation, Philby worked as The Times first-hand correspondent with the British Expeditionary Force headquarters. "[49] On 25 May, Burgess drove Maclean from his home at Tatsfield, Surrey to Southampton, where both boarded the steamship Falaise to France and then proceeded to Moscow. Philby confirmed that he had worked for the KGB and that "his purpose in life was to destroy imperialism".[75]. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. At the same time, Burgess was trying to get her into MI6. "He saw people suffering too much," but he consoled himself by arguing that "the ideals were right but the way they were carried out was wrong. I discovered much later from a photograph in MI5 files that the name he went by was Arnold Deutsch. [13] Philby later recalled: Lizzy came home one evening and told me that she had arranged for me to meet a "man of decisive importance". Bill Bristow, "My Father The Spy" Deceptions of an MI6 Officer. They got on very well together and soon settled into a pattern of meeting two or three times a week to dine, play bridge or visit the theatre or ballet. The film recounts Philby's love affair and marriage to Eleanor Brewer during his time in Beirut, and his eventual defection to the Soviet Union in late January 1963, though the characters based on Philby and Brewer have different names. From April 1950, Maclean had been the prime suspect in the investigation into the Embassy leak. 149", "Up on the Catwalk Lyrics – Simple Minds", Annotated bibliography of the Philby Affair, File release: Cold War Cambridge spies Burgess and Maclean, "Kim Philby: The Spy Who Loved Me" by Charlotte Philby, 12th June 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kim_Philby&oldid=999325306, British intelligence personnel who defected to the Soviet Union, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, People educated at Westminster School, London, People stripped of a British Commonwealth honour, Recipients of the Order of Friendship of Peoples, Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, World War II spies for the United Kingdom, People granted political asylum in the Soviet Union, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from June 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with trivia sections from October 2019, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Belgian comic authors Olivier Neuray and Valerie Lemaire wrote a series of three historical comics entitled "Les Cinq de Cambridge" involving Kim Philby. '"[80] Philby drank heavily and suffered from loneliness and depression; according to Rufina, he had attempted suicide by slashing his wrists sometime in the 1960s. [78] Though Philby claimed publicly in January 1988 that he did not regret his decisions and that he missed nothing about England except some friends, Colman's mustard, and Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce,[79] his wife Rufina Ivanovna Pukhova later described Philby as "disappointed in many ways" by what he found in Moscow. Kim Philby : biography 1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988 Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988. Interrogated repeatedly regarding his intelligence work and his connection with Burgess, he continued to deny that he had acted as a Soviet agent. Please, The subscription details associated with this account need to be updated. [3], Secret files released to the National Archives in late 2020 indicated that the government had intentionally conducted a campaign to keep Kim Philby's spying confidential "to minimise political embarrassment" and prevented the publication of his memoirs, according to a report by The Guardian. [76] In the book, Philby says that his loyalties were always with the communists; he considered himself not to have been a double agent but "a straight penetration agent working in the Soviet interest". The spy who loved me: Charlotte Philby returns to Moscow in search of her grandfather Kim Philby 332642.bin The shiny black 4x4 rumbles slowly through the graveyard. His wife Aileen died in December 1957 and he married Eleanor Brewer (former wife of Sam Pope Brewer in 1959. [59] From 1960, Philby's formerly marginal work as a journalist became more substantial and he frequently travelled throughout the Middle East, including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait and Yemen. [11][12] Philby had come to the Soviets' notice earlier that year in Vienna, where he had been involved in demonstrations against the government of Engelbert Dollfuss. Working from genuine unclassified and public CIA or US Department of State documents, Philby inserted “sinister” paragraphs regarding US plans. The new London rezident, Ivan Chichayev (code-name Vadim), re-established contact and asked for a list of names of British agents being trained to enter the USSR. David Pryce-Jones: October 2004: The New Criterion published by the Foundation for Cultural Review, New York, a nonprofit public foundation as described in Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code, London Gazette Issue 43735 published on 10 August 1965. p. 1. Solomon went to work for the British retailer Marks & Spencer. [9], Philby acted as a courier between Vienna and Prague, paying for the train tickets out of his remaining £75 and using his British passport to evade suspicion. [32], During 1942–43, Philby's responsibilities were then expanded to include North Africa and Italy, and he was made the deputy head of Section Five under Major Felix Cowgill, an army officer seconded to SIS. Rufina Philpy's book provides much more interesting reading than her husband Kim's dry book, 'My Silent War'. [10][page needed], Following the Austrofascist victory in the Austrian Civil War, Friedmann and Philby married in February 1934, enabling her to escape to the United Kingdom with him two months later. In 1963 he was revealed to be a member of the Cambridge Five, a spy ring which passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and in the early stages of the Cold War. [41] Clearly there had been leaks and Philby was later suspected as one of the leakers. Only years later did Elliott come to see the pattern of infidelity in Philby’s marriages as part and parcel of a life dedicated to betrayal. Born in British India, Philby was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. He hated London, adored Paris, and spoke of it with deeply loving affection. He graduated in 1933 with a 2:1 degree in Economics. Philby wrote that his first wife, Litzi Friedmann, an Austrian communist, had arranged the initial rendezvous with Deutsch. I questioned her about it but she would give me no details. • Philby, Burgess and Maclean, a Granada TV drama written by Ian Curteis in 1977, covers the period of the late 1940s, when British intelligence investigated Maclean until 1955 when the British government cleared Philby because it did not have enough evidence to convict him. Of the five, Philby is believed to have been most successful in providing secret information to the Soviets.[2]. A similar lapse occurred with a report from the Imperial Japanese Embassy in Moscow sent to Tokyo. [69] On 30 July Soviet officials announced that they had granted him political asylum in the USSR, along with Soviet citizenship. [58] He and Eleanor divorced and she departed Moscow in May 1965. Kim Philby was a British spy who worked for MI6. His Russian wife, Rufina, accompanied him on the secret trip - their first since her husband defected - and she later said Philby developed pneumonia and was under constant watch by the KGB. "If he did not act at once it would be too late," the telegram read, "because [Philby] would send his car to the scrap heap. "[10] Pukhova said, "he was struck by disappointment, brought to tears. When Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939, Philby's contact with his Soviet controllers was lost and Philby failed to attend the meetings that were necessary for his work. "[65] Prompted by Elliott's accusations, Philby confirmed the charges of espionage and described his intelligence activities on behalf of the Soviets. In 1940 he was interviewed by MI5 officers in London, led by Jane Archer. He was a man of considerable cultural background. [50][51], Burgess had intended to aid Maclean in his escape, not accompany him in it. Following Aileen Philby's death in 1957 and Eleanor's subsequent divorce from Brewer, Philby and Eleanor were married in London in 1959 and set up house together in Beirut. Additionally, Volkov had insisted that all written communications about him take place by bag rather than by telegraph, causing a delay in reaction that might plausibly have given the Soviets time to uncover his plans. Kim Philby (1912-1988) laughed as he watched Seventeen Moments of Spring, (a 12-part TV series about a Soviet spy operating in Nazi Germany). However, Volkov's defection had been discussed with the British Embassy in Ankara on telephones which turned out to have been tapped by Soviet intelligence. I came away with the impression that he missed the goods, services, and lifestyle of the free world. The intercepted messages revealed that the British Embassy source (identified as "Homer") travelled to New York City to meet his Soviet contact twice a week. [10][page needed], Philby provided Stalin with advance warning of Operation Barbarossa and of the Japanese intention to strike into southeast Asia instead of attacking the USSR as Hitler had urged. [77] Philby continued to read The Times, which was not generally available in the USSR, listened to the BBC World Service, and was an avid follower of cricket. In 1956, Philby began an affair with Eleanor Brewer, the wife of The New York Times correspondent Sam Pope Brewer. ", "John le Carré, The Art of Fiction No. In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. By the end of the Second World War he had become a high-ranking member. Upon her return to Istanbul in late 1948, she was badly burned in an incident with a charcoal stove and returned to Switzerland. Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs, from Communism to Al-Qaeda. During the summer of 1945, a Soviet cipher clerk had reused a one-time pad to transmit intelligence traffic. From 1947, they infiltrated the southern mountains to build support for former King Zog. He served as both an NKVD and KGB operative. Philby suffered only a minor head wound. To protect his family, still living in the USSR, he said nothing about Philby, an agreement Stalin respected. [58], In Lebanon, Philby at first lived in Mahalla Jamil, his father's large household located in the village of Ajaltoun, just outside Beirut. From 1952, Philby struggled to find work as a journalist, eventually – in August 1954 – accepting a position with a diplomatic newsletter called the Fleet Street Letter. He was publicly exonerated in 1955, after which he resumed his career as both a journalist and a spy for SIS in Beirut. This reading of history is substantially but not wholly based on Elizabeth Monroe’s book Philby of Arabia (London: Quartet Books, 1973). Most infiltrators were caught by the Sigurimi, the Albanian Security Service. You can give that to the International Organisation for Aid for Revolutionaries. [57], It is unclear whether Philby had been alerted, but Eleanor noted that as 1962 wore on, expressions of tension in his life "became worse and were reflected in bouts of deep depression and drinking". The organization was one of several fronts operated by German Communist Willi Münzenberg, a member of the Reichstag who had fled to France in 1933. His intention was to recruit the brightest students from Britain's top universities. When the Germans threatened to overrun Paris in 1940, where she was then living at this time, he arranged for her escape to Britain. To the extent that I helped defeat them, even if it caused their deaths, I have no regrets. The rules of engagement were established at the start. "[19], In 1938, Walter Krivitsky (born Samuel Ginsberg), a former GRU officer in Paris who had defected to France the previous year, travelled to the United States and published an account of his time in "Stalin's secret service". The paper was failing and its owner changed the paper's role to covering Anglo-German trade. Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1 January 1912–11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a double agent before defecting to the Soviet Union. [24][25] Philby and Burgess ran a training course for would-be saboteurs at Brickendonbury Manor in Hertfordshire. His wife joined him in Moscow in 1964 but left a year later; he later married a young Russian writer. Philby admired the strength of her political convictions and later recalled that at their first meeting: A frank and direct person, Litzi came out and asked me how much money I had. The 2005 film A Different Loyalty is an unattributed account taken from Eleanor Philby's book, Kim Philby: The Spy I Loved. His controller in Paris, the Latvian Ozolin-Haskins (code name Pierre), was shot in Moscow in 1937 during Stalin's purge. He warned the Soviets of the attempted defection and travelled personally to Istanbul – ostensibly to handle the matter on behalf of SIS but, in reality, to ensure that Volkov had been neutralised. Another effort was made using a Turkish gulet for a seaborne landing, but it never left port. [39], In February 1947, Philby was appointed head of British intelligence for Turkey, and posted to Istanbul with his second wife, Aileen, and their family. There, he underwent MI5 interrogation aimed at ascertaining whether he had acted as a "third man" in Burgess and Maclean's spy ring. The first three missions, overland from Greece, were trouble-free. This mistake made it possible to break the normally impregnable code. In the Soviet Union, Kim Philby fell in love with Rufina Pukhova, who worked at a Moscow research institute, and they married. Angleton remained suspicious of Philby, but lunched with him every week in Washington. Philby replied that none had been sent and that none were undergoing training at that time. In Vienna, working to aid refugees from Nazi Germany, Philby met and fell in love with Litzi Friedmann (born Alice Kohlmann), a young Austrian Communist of Hungarian Jewish origins. The witnesses were Tomás Harrisand Flora Solomon. The woman who exposed Britain’s most infamous double-agent. In her absence, Philby had begun an affair with Donald Maclean's wife, Melinda. "[56], After being exonerated, Philby was no longer employed by MI6 and Soviet intelligence lost all contact with him. 894646. [26] His time at Section D, however, was short-lived; the "tiny, ineffective, and slightly comic" section[27] was soon absorbed by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) in the summer of 1940. It later emerged that the agent – known as Schmidt – had also worked as an informant for the Rote Kapelle organisation, which sent information to both London and Moscow. [47] Philby had undertaken to devise an escape plan which would warn Maclean, currently in England, of the intense suspicion he was under and arrange for him to flee. [71][page needed], When FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover was informed that one of MI6's top men was a spy for the Russians, he said, "Tell 'em Jesus Christ only had twelve, and one of them was a double [agent]. [36] Nevertheless, Angleton's suspicions went unheard. 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