Arendt, Hannah. Contra Marx, Weber recognized the autonomy and efficacy of religious ideas and the role of charismatic individuals in history. Somers, Margaret R. 1999. “The Privatization of Citizenship: How to Unthink a Knowledge Culture.” Pp. Among sociologists engaged in the study of culture, the work of Jeffrey Alexander invites close attention. New York: Routledge. But while Weber had earlier placed great emphasis on the role of ideas in history, the reality of the First World War made him recognize the crucial role played by material factors in the success of ideas: Not ideas, but material and ideal interests directly govern man’s conduct. The shift in attention from grand theory to more empirical but qualitatively oriented studies in sociology since the 1980s continues to further the trend toward embracing ethnographical fieldwork as the preferred approach for studying culture. Part one is a conceptual review of the theories, methods, and techniques currently used in EAT/L research and practice for disadvantaged YP. Sewell, William H., Jr. 1999. Culture in the sociological field is analyzed as the ways of thinking and describing, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a people’s way of life. The binaries of symbolic codes and true/false statements are implanted one on the other” (p. 5). With the separation of the church and state and the secularization of culture, religion lost its public character and became instead a matter of personal belief and the private affair of each individual. As a result, Revolution can begin only by the proletariat challenging the dominant cultural apparatus to form a consciousness of its own in relation to its conditions within the capitalist system . The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. As such, those who took the latter course claimed that “understanding” should be the central category of sociological analysis. By the late 1980s, however, a major rift had appeared within cultural sociology, between, those who have thought of culture as an implicit or subjective facet of social life [and] those who portray culture in terms of specific kinds of discourse, texts, or other symbolic products. London, England: Cambridge University Press. A table of guidelines that includes specific points for the act of bracketing as well as the content to be bracketed is intended as a tool for the development of phenomenological description. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. Dirks, Nicholas B. New York: Routledge. But this is hardly the end of the story, for as Dirks (1996) emphasizes, “the debate continues [with] textuality . (Swidler 2001:76). 1974. The term practice has come to acquire a privileged position in the discourse on culture. Poulantzas, N. 1973. Purpose: We identify ways in which positionality impacts research, with a particular emphasis on demographic identity dimensions. We argue that positionality is an important tool for reflecting on and dislocating privilege, particularly when working on equity research. The framework conceptualizes, Clinical Treatment Directions for Infidelity considers the psychotherapeutic treatment of infidelity from a fresh perspective. Households in specialised fishing communities in Komodo District consumed diets with low diversity and experienced high levels of food insecurity. The . To come to grips with the problem of representation, she then counts on Hannah Arendt’s (1958) notion of the agonal nature of public/political discourse rather than the Habermasian (1992) notion of rational public discourse to provide the theoretical underpinnings of her multisited/ multiscaped qualitative strategy, that carefully listens to the specificity of individual perspectives both in terms of content (“take” or opinion) and their form (the way in which they relate to the world …) while aiming to bring them into conversation with one another . U.S. History is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of most courses. Focusing on dialogue in institutional settings, it illustrates how cultures, social orders, and moral horizons are talked-into-being and shaped through the activities performed in institutional talk. . As a result, Practice theory moves the level of sociological attention “down” from conscious ideas and values to the physical and the habitual. He or she still needs to figure out and make “implicit claims about what the symbols mean to individual actors or group of actors.” The only saving grace, then, seems to be that at least the “discourses and practices are concretely observable in a way that meanings, ideas, and values never really were” (p. 76). However, there has been relatively little research on the extent of food and nutrition security in specialised fishing communities. Hall, John R. and Mary Jo Neitz. Wuthnow, Robert. 1975. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Durkheim ([1915] 1965) had rightly understood that the real characteristic of religious phenomena lay in the division of the whole universe into the sacred and the profane. 1951. Grossberg, Lawrence. He tries to accomplish his goal by extending Durkheim’s ideas on primitive religion to demonstrate how “the love of the sacred, the fear of pollution, and the need for purification have continued to mark modern as much as traditional life” (pp. To underwrite the inevitability involved in the disappearance of traditional societies and to explain why the world has come to consist of “culturally homogeneous pools” called nation-states, Ernest Gellner invokes the “sociological necessity” of the industrial world having “room only for a limited number of nation states” (Gellner 1979, cited in Gallagher 1979:58). Roseberry, William. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Moreover, competition has arisen between those who regard cultural sociology as more legitimately concerned with the social contexts in which culture is produced and those who wish to focus attention more clearly on the content of these products themselves. 1998. “Contemporary Developments in Sociological Theory: Current Prospects and Conditions of Possibility.” Annual Review of Sociology 24:453–76. 1988. “Hegemony and New Political Subjects: Toward a New Concept of Democracy.” Pp. this literature I established five distinct curriculum perspectives, each offering [1985] 1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Pp. . The 1950s and 1960s: The 1950s were marked by the “semiotic revolution” ushered in by the structuralism of Claude Lévi-Strauss, “which traced all meaning to the functioning of signs or symbols” and insisted that “culture itself could be analyzed much like a language, and all behavior got its meaning from often unconscious or implicit structural codes embedded in it.” The turbulent 1960s, however, ended up placing both agency and history back again at the center of the intellectual agenda. After noting the bewildering variety of definitions, and Radcliffe-Brown’s (1957) lament that “the word culture has undergone a number of degradations which have rendered it unfortunate as a scientific term,” Leslie White ([1954] 1968) settled for a nominalistic definition: “Culture, like bug, is a word that we may use to label a class of phenomena—things and events—in the external world. . Rose (1999), on the other hand, raises the related but most basic question of “how . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1–26 in Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, edited by J. Clifford and G. E. Marcus. 277–94 in Cultural Studies, edited by L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, and P. A. Treichler. Griswold, Wendy. When Marxists Do Research. Modern thinkers seek in vain to find a principle of continuity and coherence that would provide meaning to life and its pursuits in a fragmented culture that has lost its traditional legitimacy. Political Power and Social Classes. This critical state of affairs has brought about a marked shift in emphasis from the social to the cultural in the social sciences and has resulted in a “cultural turn,” which has taken us back to the interpretive/hermeneutical tradition of a Wilhelm Dilthey, Max Weber, or Alfred Schultz. In addition to the critical problem of the very survival of local traditional cultures, Gayatri Chakravorty-Spivak’s ([1985] 1988) “Can the Subaltern Speak?” identifies representation as the central problematic of global culture. 1999. “Colonizers, Scholars, and the Creation of Invisible Histories.” Pp. Tilly’s (1997) study of the parliamentarization of British politics is identified as one of the several others that have employed structural methods for measuring meanings. . Seidman, Stephen. . The Methodology of the Social Sciences. This was used to explore emergent themes in the participants’ subjective experiences of group ACT delivered in community mental health services. 2001:11–12). Thompson, E. P. 1963. The fragmentation and destruction of the cultural coherence of traditional societies is well documented in Feierman’s (1999) study of the brutal colonial suppression of public healing practices in Africa. A basic problem has been the lack of a common definition of “culture.” A half-century ago, Kroeber and Kluckhohn ([1952] 1963:149) enumerated almost 300 definitions of culture in their critical review of this most significant concept in cultural anthropology. [1953] 1963. “Common-Sense and Scientific Interpretation of Human Action.” Pp. That is a worthy goal indeed but leaves as many questions unanswered: What myths? Translated by J. W. Swain. a different view of academics, knowledge and students in the curriculum. The Logic of Social Inquiry. There is a peculiar way in which all these other histories tend to become variations on a master narrative that could be called “the history of Europe.” In this sense, “Indian” history itself is in a position of subalternity: one can only articulate subaltern subject positions in the name of this history. As a dialectical materialist, Marx borrowed the dialectical method from Hegel but claimed that Hegel was wrong in giving primacy to the Spirit over matter. Gallagher, Charles. Peterson, Richard A. Sociology is the study of human behavior. Schatzki, Theodore R., Karin Knorr Cetina, and Eike von Savigny. Their focus on consensus and equilibrium made the functionalists neglect sociocultural contradictions and conflicts that mark the other face of society. We calculated and generated descriptive statistics for these indicators with Microsoft Excel and ran a logistic generalized linear mixed model to determine factors associated with severe food insecurity using SPSS. London, England: Peter Owen. New York: Greenwood Press. . Bracketing is a method used in qualitative research to mitigate the potentially deleterious effects of preconceptions that may taint the research process. Mouffe, Chantal. Mohr, John W. 1998. “Measuring Meaning Structures.” Annual Review of Sociology 24:345–70. 1998. “Theory/Practice.” Pp. The Dutch school occupies an important place in the phenomenological move­ ment as a whole. Power/Knowledge, edited by C. Gordon. The primary task of a bracketing facilitator is providing assistance for a colleague in moving away from the usual cognitive mode of thinking during data analysis and into a state of emotional sensitivity to personal history and experience of the phenomenon. Marx thus asserts the primacy of the objective, material factors over ideas, consciousness, culture, and institutions, which are all treated by him as part of the superstructure. 1999. “Cultural Analysis and Moral Discourses: Episodes, Continuities, and Transformations.” Pp. Linstead, Stephen. In a section titled the “Perils of the Text,” Ian Davies records that, the temptation, always, even in pre-Marxian days, was to find salvation in the text. It reconstructs the gene-sis-at the beginning of the 20th century-of two ideas that still nourish contemporary interactional and pragmatic views of language: language meaning relies on use, This chapter is the introduction to the edited volume "Ordoliberalism and European Economic Policy: Between Realpolitik and Economic Utopia". 1985. London, England: New Left Books. Modernity and postmodernity have already passed a death sentence on traditional societies and cultures, the wholesale destruction of aboriginal (and all other) spiritual traditions having been a key element of the process of colonization (Kulchyski 1997:622). Derrida, Jacques. Culture. Displacing the nineteenth-century concept of “race” as a way of differentiating people, “culture” proved to be “one of the most useful intellectual tools of the twentieth century,” even as the cultural field became “a critical domain of intellectual and of social struggle” (Kulchyski 1997:605). Lewandowski (2001), however, is uncertain whether Geertz’s reading is “deep” or is merely perspectival/local. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Berkeley: University of California Press. Mohr also draws attention to Griswold’s (1987, 1993) attempt to formulate rigorous empirical approaches that try to bridge the gap between the understanding of meaning contained in literary and other texts and the study of social structure. Commenting on E. P. Thompson’s (1963) focus on conflict and difference and his attempt to rescue the marginalized and the bypassed from “the enormous condescension of posterity,” Davies feels, “It was, perhaps, more of an appropriation of these people to another cause (Thompson’s own) than to fully reveal them as they were.” “Was ‘history from below,’” Davies (1995) goes on to ask, just “another form of ‘Orientalism,’ to use Said’s ([1978] 1995) language, a grasping for the ‘people’ to validate one’s own culture?” (p. 96). In either case, does the superstructure react back on the base at all? Analysis of social networks is suggested as a tool for linking micro and macro levels of sociological theory. Eisenstadt, Shmuel. Fish are overwhelmingly produced by the small-scale sector, which supports food and nutrition security directly through the provision of fish and indirectly through the generation of income which can be used to purchase other desired foods. Swidler, Ann. Unwilling to let go of the first for the second, most sociologists would perhaps find it congenial to carve out a position between the two extremes. A step-by-step approach to the search for personal connections is presented, including an example of the process of facilitating this search. She also finds the individualistic imagery underlying Bourdieu’s (1977) concept of “habitus” and Sewell’s (1992) concept of “cultural schemas” as less appealing. All participants had a relationship with their hero, learned lessons from them, and were inspired by them. 1979. These reports of changes were consistent with the model and extend our understanding of the lived experience of engaging in ACT for psychosis groups. Bonnell and Hunt (1999) have summed up the predicament as follows: The cultural turn and a more general postmodern critique of knowledge have contributed, perhaps decisively, to the enfeebling of paradigms for social scientific research. The Social System. Rose (1999) also draws attention to the circular nature of their argument regarding durability or continuity: Their formulation, while appealing because it seems to suggest that particular cultural forms endure because they are deep, in the end relies on circular reasoning. His call for a cultural sociology, which he defines as the study of cultural structures, is framed within the context of “the linguistic turn in philosophy, the rediscovery of hermeneutics, the structuralist revolution in the human sciences, the symbolic revolution in anthropology, and the cultural turn in American historiography” (Alexander 2003:6). 1980. London, England: New Left Books. Reflecting on the wrong turn Marxist and sociological scholarship had taken at the end of the twentieth century, Bergesen (1993) noted with obvious distress that, the theoretical corpus of Marxism has fled the intellectual terrain of social structure (class relations in material production) to be re-invented in the sphere of culture/ideology as the discursive formation with class relations re-theorized as signed subject relations governed by the linguistic logic of symbolic difference [and] that [the earlier] faith in social structure—Marxian, Durkheimian, Weberian—now seems shattered. 1993. “Recent Moves in the Sociology of Literature.” Annual Review of Sociology 19:455–67. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 5–11 in Social Structure and Culture, edited by H. Haferkamp. The approach involved a set of Conversation Cards with a series of question-based prompts directly linked to the APSTs and designed to enhance reflective conversations. The structuralist aim is to go beneath the surface differences among cultures to lay bare their common but deep underlying patterns that constitute their structure. To insist that culture was not just an appendage of the social structure or merely a reflection of more basic socioeconomic processes (such as industrialization or modernization) but that it made an independent contribution of its own to the sociohistorical process, and as a result, the “social” lost some of its privileged explanatory potential. Ann Swidler’s practice approach does not obviate the need for interpretation and the imputation of meanings by the analyst either. Translated by B. Brewster. Althusser, Louis and Etienne Balibar. 11–35). White, Leslie A. It also presents the contributions in the Special Issue that address the co-constitutive relationship between language, interaction, and culture from different disciplinary perspectives as well as methodological approaches. Qualitative research is designed to explore the human elements of a given topic, while specific qualitative methods examine how individuals see and experienc Coming from the other direction, Eisenstadt (1989) had expressed his serious reservations about the growing disjunction between the study of culture and the study of social structure and had noted with great concern the increasing marginalization of some of the central areas of sociology of culture (sociology of knowledge, religion, and the arts). New York: Seabury Press. Methods: The study used a qualitative research methodology, grounded theory. Of Grammatology. Williams, Raymond. Are the social sciences becoming a branch of a more general interpretive, even literary activity—just another cultural study with claims only for individual authorial virtuosity rather than for a more generally valid shared knowledge? A Natural Science of Society. Part two is an empirical research paper that explores the role of interactions between people and horses in interventions at a charity offering EAT/L for disadvantaged YP. 1997. While sociologists have continued to be of one mind that the discipline ought to be “scientific,” the question of methodology has divided the practitioners into two camps. Foucault, Michel. We assessed the seasonal nutrition quality of household diets using the Food Consumption Score for nutritional analysis and food insecurity using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale in 66 households across three communities, using a modified cluster sampling strategy. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Alexander, Jeffery C. 1990. “Analytical Debates: Understanding the Relative Autonomy of Culture.” Pp. On this reckoning, though, any beliefs and any practices would do, for, as he put it, “The only thing necessary for a society to be coherent is that its members have their eyes fixed on the same goal, concur in the same faith” (see Farganis 2004:84). A secondary aim was to identify how participants described changes in their relationship to distress following the groups. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Thus history from below, even though it uncovers a layer of experience that was formerly absent in historical research, creates an appropriation of its subject-matter that makes “representation” essentially tokenish. Radcliffe-Brown (1957) went farther and denied the very possibility of a science of culture, insisting that “you can study culture only as a characteristic of a social system. New York: Walter de Gruyter. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. (P. 102), Furthermore, she points to the bankruptcy of such an argument, for, if it is only a question of function and how a thing works, the adherents of “false religion” can make as good a case for using theirs as I can for using my heel, which doesn’t work so badly either. 1976. “The Construction of the Historical World in the Human Studies.” Pp. Readings in Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. There is also a greater appreciation of the historical or the time dimension and a consequent interest in specifying the diachronic character of cultural change, especially among social historians (see Sewell 1997). As a Marxist, Althusser (1971) gives structuralism a materialistic turn. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. These considerations lead her to conclude that, moral discourses specify a single standard of virtue, while denigrating or marginalizing alternative practices. 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